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Metabolic and immune effects of immunotherapy with proinsulin peptide in human new-onset type 1 diabetes: Immunotherapy using peptides has been successful for some patients with allergies, but has not yet been deployed in autoimmune diseases, which may involve greater safety risks. Alhadj Ali et al . designed a placebo-controlled trial to determine whether a proinsulin peptide could safely elicit immune and metabolic responses in people recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes without accelerating disease. This small trial showed that treatment seemed to modify T cell responses and did not interfere with residual β cell function. In contrast to subjects in the placebo arm, treated subjects did not need to increase their insulin use. These encouraging results support a larger trial to investigate efficacy of the peptide therapy for treating disease. Mohammad Alhadj Ali. Yuk-Fun Liu. Sefina Arif. Danijela Tatovic. Hina Shariff. Vivienne B. Gibson. Norkhairin Yusuf. Roman Baptista. Martin Eichmann. Nedyalko Petrov. Susanne Heck. Jennie H. M. Yang. Timothy I. M. Tree. Irma Pujol-Autonell. Lorraine Yeo. Lucas R. Baumard. Rachel Stenson. Alex Howell. Alison Clark. Zoe Boult. Jake Powrie. Laura Adams. Florence S. Wong. Stephen Luzio. Gareth Dunseath. Kate Green. Alison O’Keefe. Graham Bayly. Natasha Thorogood. Robert Andrews. Nicola Leech. Frank Joseph. Sunil Nair. Susan Seal. HoYee Cheung. Craig Beam. Robert Hills. Mark Peakman. Colin M. Dayan. Science Translational Medicine.